Microbiology & Virology 2019

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Medical Microbiology

Microbiology provides a wide knowledge of research and new insights into various zones of microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, which cause diseases in a human. Medical microbiology focus on the studies related to the development and progress of the infectious disease in human population. Different branches of Microbiology include mycology, bacteriology, Immunology, Virology, infectious diseases, nematology, parasitology, and so on.
- Microbiology Diagnosis
- Sterilization, Disinfection, and infection control
- Microbial genetics
- Microbial physiology
- Nanotechnology in Medical Microbiology

Clinical Microbiology or Microbial Physiology

Clinical Microbiology deals with study of the interrelation of macro- and microorganisms under normal and pathological conditions. It provides inclusive information on the identification of different microorganisms and features of newly recognized and re-emerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial agents and their applications, and diagnostic laboratory technologies. Microbial profiling helps in the relegation of microbes predicated on experiments, resulting prompt identification of their taxonomy. It also helps to identify the good and bad microbes that have high impact in our day-to-day life.
- Skin Infection and Clinical Dermatology
- Anatomy of microorganisms
- Clinical aspects of infection
- Pathogenesis and virulence of microbes
- Biomarker tools in microbial diagnosis

Virus and Diseases

A virus is a tiny infectious agent/ organism that causes an infection in the body and contaminate plants, animals, insects and even microscopic organisms. Viruses can be transmitted in numerous ways, such as through contact with an infected person, swallowing, inhalation, or unsafe sex. Viruses are reliant on host cell machinery for their replication and both bacterial and animal viruses are responsible for taking a recombinant DNA revolution. Viruses show solid immunological reactions with both cell and humoral immunity. Many antivirals were created to treat viral diseases by targeting viral replication stages.
- Viruses of Microorganisms
- Animal virology
- Zika Virus and Ebola virus
- Oncolytic viruses
- Clinical virology
- Uses of Viruses in Material science and Nanotechnology

Industrial Microbiology or Biotechnology

Industrial microbiology is also termed as microbial biotechnology which has major application of scientific and engineering principles to create useful products and processes by microorganisms or plant and animal cells. The microbes utilized may be natural isolates, selected mutants from the laboratories or microbes that are genetically engineered using recombinant DNA technologies. Industrial microbiology focuses on the quality assurance for the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Industrial microbiology has great impact on the beneficial discovery, development, or implementation of certain processes like antibiotics, antimicrobials, vaccines, health-care products foods and beverages food flavouring agents, preservatives, enzymes, carbohydrates with proper analysis of the resultant products. Some other uses of industrial microbiology include recovery of oil or mining, contamination control, degrade or transform pollutants and also in waste water management.
- Fermentation and Biotransformation
- Bacterial Transformation
- Brewing Microbiology
- Microbial resistance to antibiotics
- Anaerobic sugar fermentation

Food and Beverages Microbiology

Food Microbiology focuses on microbes having both beneficial and venomous effects on the safety and quality of foods, thereby becoming a public concern to provide a most suitable medium for microbial growth and metabolism. Both microbial versatility and diversity can be exploited for the improvement of quality, safety and healthy processes of processed foods in the biotechnologically and industrially level which focuses on identifying the nutritional level of the food. Food science defines the microbial interactions with various foods and food chain environments which include their adaptation and response mechanisms to food processing and handling stresses. Development of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics as food supplements and their effects on human health including effects on host gut microbiota.
- Foodborne Pathogens
- Food Spoilage, Fermentation and preservation
- Probiotics, Prebiotics & Synbiotics
- Food authenticity and testing
- Microbial growth and intrinsic factors

Soil and Environmental Microbiology

Environmental microbiology deals with the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. Molecular biology has revolutionized the study of microorganisms in the environment and improved our understanding of the composition, phylogeny, and physiology of microbial communities. Soil microbial activity that reveals the microbiological processes of soil microorganisms indicating the soil quality, as plants rely on soil microorganisms to obtain organic nutrients for growth and development. Microbes play a vital role in oil biodegradation, degradation of aromatic compounds and analysis of waste biotreatment.
- Geomicrobiology
- Aeromicrobiology
- Exo microbiology
- Microbial ecology
- Bioremediation
- Bio fertilizers and Bio pesticides Climate Change and Microbial Ecology

STD STI and HIV AIDS

Sexually transmitted disease or infection can affect both men and women through sexual contact. Antibiotics can make a treatment for STDs caused by bacteria, yeast, or parasites, STDs caused by a virus has no cure. The human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus which attacks the immune system, which is our body’s natural defence against illness, causes HIV infection and AIDS. HIV diagnosis is done by testing your blood or saliva for antibodies of the virus. Clinical trials are the main way to determine if new medical approaches to HIV/AIDS are safe and effective in people. Proper hygienic living and habit will be a major step to fight against the diseases cause by the STD or STI.
- AIDS and Obstetrics and Gynaecology
-Syphilis
- HIV Associated Diseases
- Gonorrhea
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Microbiology and Agriculture

Agricultural Microbiology is a field of study concerned with plant-associated microbes and their diseases. It aims to deals with the problems in agricultural practices usually caused by the biodiversity in microbial communities which may include the enhancement of factors such as soil nutrients, crop robustness, plant-pathogen resistance, fertilization uptake efficiency, and more. The symbiotic relationships between microbes and plants can ultimately leads for greater production food necessary to feed the growing population of human with safer farming techniques for the sake of minimizing ecological disruption.
- Agricultural Productivity
- Biofertilizers
- Microbial Herbicides
- Nitrogen-fixing rhizobia
- Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Physiology and Biochemistry

Viral vaccines and vaccination

Vaccines which are biological preparation containing an infectious agent- probably weakened or a killed form of the actual infectious agent, viz., bacteria or virus or the toxin therefor, along with other substances. Vaccines confer for the protection against various infections- bacterial and viral. They are divided into Antibiotics (against bacterial infections), Antivirals (against viral infections), Antifungals (against fungal infections), Antiprotozoal (against protozoal infections), anti-helminths and nematicides (against nematodes and helminths) etc. Traditional viral vaccines, such as that of influenza, for polio and hepatitis B, elicit neutralizing antibodies that play a vital role to protect immunity. Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
- Applications of viral vectors
- Vaccine safety
- Polio vaccines
- Childhood and maternal vaccination
- Advances in antiviral vaccine development

Applied Microbiology

Microbes have been proved as beneficial for the survival of mankind. Microbes have a significant role to play in the discovery of antibiotics, microbial vaccines, anti-microbial coatings, immune system modulating agents, disinfectants, manufacturing of biofuels and bioplastics, using biotransformation for the production of chemicals and other therapeutic agents. Microbes are superlatively appropriate for the studies of biochemical and genetic, and showed to be successful in providing information on genetic codes and gene regulations. Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are the important methods for mapping the genes on bacterial chromosomes. Recombinant DNA technology, selection, mutation, reproductive cloning, and use of plasmids form a part of genetic engineering tools.
- Electromicrobiology
- Biofouling and Biocorrosion
- Impedance microbiology
- Mutation and recombination
- Gene transfer and recombination
- Microbial Diversity

Hepatitis and Herpes Virus

Human Virology accomplishes infections which attack human. Hepatitis is the inflammatory condition of the liver causes by the viral infection. Hepatitis viruses are mainly spread by contaminated food or water, sexually transmitted, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, infected blood transfusion or sharing of needles. Hepatitis A, B, and D are preventable with immunization. Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus which causes primarily face, mouth, throat, eye, and central nervous system infections. Research leads into vaccines for both prevention and treatment of herpes infections.
- Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies
- Types of hepatitis virus
- Oral herpes and genital herpes
- Diagnosis and treatment

Mycology and Phycology

Mycology comprises the study of biochemical and genetic properties and taxonomy of fungi and their use to humans as a source for tinder, food, medicine, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. Medical Mycology is gaining more importance in the study of disease causing and as well as other medically important fungi with their interactions with the host-cells. Algae study is called as Phycology. These are the primary producers in the aquatic ecosystem, are extremely essential in the growth of microorganisms in the water eco-systems. It is found to be pseudo-plants, hence given a separate classification. In most cases, algae are single-celled and only few species are multicellular. Phytoplankton and microalgae are a type of algae, with some species of algae being large, capable of growing into seaweeds.
- Phycoplanktons
- Single - celled algae
- Biosynthetic factories
- Algaculture

Veterinary Microbiology

Veterinary Microbiology is concerned with microbial diseases of domesticated animals that provide food and other useful products. Veterinary Microbiology which is an important platform, gives veterinarians and microbiologists an inter-disciplinary forum, so that they can study various aspects of the infections which is caused by the pathogenic microorganisms. The emerging virus leads to the health issue for the animals that may cause death and misery to the animals. Various viral or bacterial diseases/infections are also naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans.
- Veterinary immunology
- Disease of animal system
- Microbes as infectious agents to animal
- Pathogenesis of Respiratory Viruses
- Foot & Mouth disease Virus
- Vaccination and treatment methods

Bacteriology

Bacteria play an essential role in the biosphere and certain key processes, such as, the production and oxidation of methane, soil formation, conversion of rock to soil etc. Traditional methods of bacterial identification depend on phenotypic identification of the causative organism using gram staining, culture and biochemical methods. Microbes have been around for more than 3.5 billion years. Humans depends microbes to stay healthy, and many microbes need the environments provided by the human body to survive. Major researches in bacteriology over the past years resulted in the development of many useful vaccines.
- Bacterial physiology
- Bacterial genetics
- Cholera- Vibrio cholerae
- Beneficial bacteria
- Pulmonary Tuberculosis- Mycobacterium tuberculae
- Epidemiology of bacterial diseases

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Pharmaceutical Microbiology involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Major focus of pharmaceutical microbiology is to examine the reaction of the product in cases of contamination. Other features of pharmaceutical microbiology include sterility, microbial contamination or bioburden, determine antimicrobial effectiveness, analyse endotoxins or identify flora.
- Quality control of drugs
- Formation of Drugs
- Quality Assurance of drug
- Microbiological assays of antibiotics
- Drug discovery and Development
- Entotoxin testing

Oral Microbiology

The human mouth environment make suitable for the growth of some microbes which will lead to the rise of various oral related diseases. One of the most key targets of oral microbiology in future would be to determine the diversity, magnitude, frequency, pathogenicity, treatment and prognosis of oral viruses and the infections they cause. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their environment and eschew or modify the host.
- Initial discovery of oral microbes
- Oral bacteria
- Dental plague
- Oral poly-microbial diseases
- Vaccination against oral infection

Petroleum Microbiology

Petroleum Microbiology predominantly comprises the study of Microorganisms that can refined or metabolize crude petroleum products. Bio remediation is involved in the main process which deals with the treatment process of contaminated media including water and industrial wastes. Microorganisms help the degradation hydrocarbons with the involvement of methanogenic archaea, bacteria and few fungi to upgrade the purity of the petroleum waste. There is a new trend in petroleum Microbiology which makes use of genetically modified Bacteria for the further treatment process of the petroleum refined products.
- Hydrocarbon
- Bioremediation
- Biofuels and Bioproducts
- Treatment of Petroleum Waste
- Biosurfactants
- Microbial Bio Sensor

Forensic Microbiology

Forensic microbiology has a great impact for the present societies to solve varies crimes. Forensic microbiology leads to study of microorganisms in order to conclude the path of an outbreak or the identity of a criminal or the origin of a particular strain of biological weapon. Microbial genetic analysis becomes a valuable tool in this arena. Forensic microbiologists have a brief research below the visible world to discovery biological markers hidden in the DNA of all living matter.
- Wildlife forensics
- Expansion of microbial forensics
- Trace evidence
- Mobile device forensics
- Microbiome forensics

Research and Development in Microbiology

Microscopic organisms are the most classified and rich gathering of creatures on Earth. There are one billion times more individual microscopic organisms on earth than stars in the universe. Microbiology investigates the tiny living beings, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell settlement), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology includes various sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology. Microbiology is a more noteworthy measure of amongst depending and between related field, without which, distinctive fields will deteriorate. Microbiology has given rise to different sub-fields, which are now fields in themselves.
- Microbial translocation
- Microbes in vaccine production
- Legionella PCR
- Antibiotic
- Nanotechnology and Microbiology

Aquatic or Marine Microbiology

Aquatic Microbiology studies the microbes in aqueous environments like freshwater, estuarine and oceanic ecosystems with their biodiversity, ecology and bio geochemistry. Marine Microbiology is complex with numerous mysteries, differences, and highly unexplored field of Microbiology. Metagenomics describes the study of genetic material directly recovered from the environment and can reveal the abundance and composition of marine microbial ecosystems. There are certain viruses in marine which multiplies inside the organisms cell which acts as an infectious agent. These viruses can affect the plants, animals including bacteria and archae. Microbes present in marine can be further useful for drug discovery and production which will be a new trend in marine microbiology. The growth of some bacteria in contaminated water can help digest the poisons from the water and on the other side, disease causing microbes in water is unhealthy and even life threatening.
- Marine microbial symbiosis
- Marine Ecology
- Marine Sponges Fermenters
- Lithification Process